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An allergist/immunologist is a certified internist or pediatrician expert in the evaluation, and management of disorders involving immune system. Selected examples of such conditions include asthma, anaphylaxis, rhinitis eczema, urticaria, and adverse reactions to drugs, foods, and insect stings.
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The anesthesiologist's principal task is providing pain relief and maintenance of a stable condition during an operation. The anesthesiologist assesses the risk of the patient undergoing surgery and optimize the patient's condition prior to, during, and after surgery. Anesthesiologists also diagnose and treat acute and long-standing pain problems. They also direct resuscitation in the care of patients with cardiac and respiratory emergencies, including the provision of artificial ventilation. They also supervise and teach others involved in anesthesia, respiratory, and intensive care.
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A dermatologist is a physician concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of benign and malignant disorders of the skin, mouth, hair, and nails. The dermatologist has had training and experience in the management of skin cancers, moles, and other tumors of the skin and in the use of the various techniques for the correction of cosmetic defects of the skin. The dermatologist is qualified in the care of normal skin and to administer treatment for all skin diseases.
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Emergency Medicine is primarily a hospital-based specialty which involves the treatment of patients who come to an emergency room. The emergency physician provides immediate evaluation, care, and disposition of patients with acute illness and injury. If the emergency physician feels the patient should be admitted, then they are referred to the appropriate specialty of medicine or surgery for admission to the hospital. Emergency room physicians care for people who have suffered trauma as in automobile accidents, acute myocardial infarcts and life-threatening conditions then refer to specialists continuing care . Emergency room physicians are also able to handle smaller minor injuries that require outpatient diagnosis and treatment such as acute infectious diseases and lacerations. Many non-life-threatening emergencies can be handled by the emergency room physician without hospitalization.
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Family Practice is the medical specialty concerned with the total health care of the individual and the family. The family practitioner can, in a sense, be considered the general practitioner of medicine. Family practitioners mainly take care of adults, but also are qualified to take care of children and some may even elect to perform deliveries. The scope of family practice is not limited by age, sex, or disease. Family practitioners refer to other specialists when they deem it necessary. They are also specially trained to recognize and treat problems of family dynamics and how this impacts on the health of the individual members.
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A general internist provides medical care for adolescents and adults. The general internist provides comprehensive care of common and complex illnesses in the office, as well as in the hospital. If they deem it necessary, they may refer to a specialist in an outpatient setting. While in the hospital, they may ask a specialist to come for additional consultation. Generally, they are the one in charge of orchestrating, in complicated cases, the different specialists who may be asked for consultations. Internists May Sub-Specialize In: Cardiovascular Medicine: Cardiologists sub-specialize in diseases of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels and manage conditions such as heart attacks. They often perform complicated diagnostic procedures such as cardiac catheterization. Critical Care Medicine: This internist has sub-specialized in managing life-threatening acute disorders in intensive care units. Endocrinology: The endocrinologist concentrates on disorders of the internal (endocrine) glands such as the thyroid and adrenal glands. They evaluate and treat diseases such as diabetes, hypothyroidism, and glandular disorders. Gastroenterology: This subspecialty treats the digestive organs which includes the stomach, bowels, liver, and gallbladder. The gastroenterologist treats conditions such as abdominal pain, ulcers, diarrhea, cancer, and jaundice, and consults with surgeons when abdominal operations indicated. Gastroenterologist examine the hollow organs through lighted endoscopes and, through these flexible tubes, can biopsy lining tissues and remove small polyps. Geriatric Medicine: Geriatric Medicine is not regarded as a subspecialty, but rather as an added competence in trained internists. The elderly have special needs since they often have an altered presentation of illness and special drug interactions. Hematology: Hematologists sub-specialize in diseases of the blood, spleen, and lymph glands. They treat conditions such as anemia, clotting disorders, sickle cell disease, hemophilia leukemia and lymphoma. They may perform special types of transfusions and biopsy the bone marrow for analysis as is required for diagnosing and treatment. Infectious Disease: These sub-specialists deal with infectious diseases of all types and in all organs. Conditions requiring selective use of antibiotics call for this special skill. Patients with fevers which have not been explained are often diagnosed and treated by these sub-specialists, as well as rare and exotic infections with bacteria, viral, and fungi. They are especially suited to help in the treatment of patients who may present multiple and unique infections. Medical Oncology: The medical oncologist specializes in the diagnosis and treatment on all types of cancer and other benign and malignant tumors. These sub-specialists also decide on and administer chemotherapy for malignancy, as well as consult with surgeons and radiotherapists on treatment for cancer. Nephrology: The nephrologist is concerned with disorders of the kidney which may produce hypertension and fluid and mineral imbalance. They are the ones chiefly involved in running dialysis units. Dialysis is the mechanical removal of body wastes by a machine when the kidneys do not function. Pulmonary Disease: Pulmonary Disease is the subspecialty concerned with diseases of the lungs and other chest tissues. The pulmonologist diagnoses and treats diseases such as pneumonia, cancer of the lung, asthma, bronchitis and emphysema. Pulmonologists test lung functions in many ways, including visually with the bronchoscope and other pulmonary functions studies. Many pulmonary disease experts supervise critical care units. Rheumatology: Rheumatologists are concerned with diseases of joints, muscles, bones, and tendons. The rheumatologist diagnoses and treats arthritis, various types of back pain, muscle strains, and common athletic injuries. They are especially trained to treat and recognize diseases of the connective tissue and arteries in many body systems called "collagen" diseases, for example, scleroderma and lupus.
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A specialist in neonatal-perinatal medicine is the principal care provider for sick newborn infants. He/she brings extensive experience derived from an intensively focused clinical interest in the problems of newborns. This clinical expertise is used for direct patient care and for consulting with obstetrical colleagues to plan the care of mothers who have high-risk pregnancies. The extensive and focused clinical experience with sick newborns prepares the specialist as a consultant to general pediatricians as they routinely care for most newborns.
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The neurologic surgeon is involved in the operative and non-operative management of patients with disorders of the nervous system. They evaluate and treat the disease processes which modify function for activity of the nervous system. They are the ones who perform brain surgery and also surgery on other nerves of the body such as carpal tunnel syndrome of the wrist. In addition, they do surgery of the spine when discs push on the nerves of the spine.
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A neurologist is a physician concerned with diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central and peripheral nervous system. They treat medical conditions such as stroke, epilepsy, headaches, neck and back pain, and Parkinson's Disease. They work closely with neurologic surgeons and refer to them when they think a neurologic problem may respond to surgery. Neurologists use a variety of techniques and technology to assist them in evaluating and diagnosing neurologic disorders. Disorders may fall into the central nervous system- brain and spinal column, peripheral nervous system-the nerves that cause the body to function and have sensation, or the musculoskeletal system-when the nerve muscle interactions may be responsible for symptoms.
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The nuclear medicine physician uses radionuclides and nuclear imaging instrumentation systems. He serves as a consultant to other physicians, obtaining by carrying out appropriate diagnostic or therapeutic uses of radionuclides.
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The obstetrician and gynecologist often serve as consultants to other physicians and may act sometimes as primary physicians for women. They may elect to practice both obstetrics and gynecology or specialize in one or the other. Gynecologists provide complete routine care and treat problems such as abnormal bleeding and tumors of the female organs, ovaries, uterus, and cervix, and in doing so, use a variety of techniques, such as Pap smears, biopsies, culdoscopy, and may treat lesions with general surgery. The may provide counseling, treatment and care to women with fertility problems. Obstetricians provide comprehensive care to the expecting mother during pregnancy for females before and after pregnancy. Obstetricians are specially trained to diagnose and treat complications that may develop in the course of pregnancy and delivery.
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Maternal Fetal Medicine: Maternal Fetal Medicine physicians are obstetrician-gynecologists this sub-specialty focuses on diagnosing, treating and caring for women and unborn babies who are at risk of complications or illness during pregnancy or who have been diagnosed with a disease or other medical problem. Doctors who practice this specialty must complete an additional two to three years of fellowship study and training on top of their obstetrics degree. Reproductive Endocrinology: Reproductive endocrinologists are Obstetrician-Gynecologists with advanced fellowship training, research and professional skills in Reproductive Endocrinology & Infertility. These highly trained and qualified physicians treat Reproductive Disorders that affect children, women, men, the mature woman, and infertility in both men and women. Treatments may include medical therapy, surgery and procedures that maximize fertility potential such as in vitro fertilization (IVF).
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Ophthalmologists provide comprehensive eye and vision care. They are the only practitioners medically trained to diagnose, monitor and medically or surgically treat all eyelid and orbital problems affecting the eye and visual pathways and to diagnose, monitor and treat all eye disorders. They diagnose, monitor, and treat all eye and visual disorders.
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Orthopedic surgeons are involved with care of patients with muscle, bone, and joint problems. They treat trauma to the bones and muscles, as well as infections and tumors of the muscoloskeletal system. They treat diseases of the musculoskeletal system, both medically and surgically. Arthroscopy and joint replacement surgery are done by orthopedists.
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An otolaryngologist is a head and neck surgeon who has been prepared by accredited residency programs to provide comprehensive medical and surgical care of patients with diseases and disorders that affect the ear, the upper respiratory tract, and head and neck in general. The otolaryngologist has an understanding of communications sciences, including audiology, speech, and language pathology. They also may perform allergy testing and treatment of allergies which involve the head and neck. Head and neck oncology and facial plastic and reconstructive surgery are areas of expertise Otolaryngologists perform tonsillectomies, do surgery on the parotid glad and structures of the neck and nose, as well as the oral pharynx (mouth and throat), and tongue.
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Pathologists are physicians who study the nature and causes of disease and provide diagnostic testing and reports on specimens sent to the lab by other doctors. Pathologists are prepared to use their skills and knowledge for the diagnosis and monitoring of disease by means of information gathered from the microscopic examination of tissue specimens, cells, and body fluids, and from clinical laboratory tests on body fluids. Pathologists have the clinical training, as well as the laboratory expertise, to function as consultants to physicians practicing clinical medicine and to patients. Hundreds of tests are available. Examples include biopsy and cytology (pap smear) interpretation for cancer, blood counts and chemistries, cultures and therapeutic drug monitoring. They work closely with technologists, administrators and physicians to assure quality, accuracy and appropriate lab testing. Pathologists completing approved 4-5 year training programs after medical school may take certification exams. A certified specialist in pathology may subspecialize in the following areas: Blood Banking, Chemical Pathology, Dermatopathology, Forensic Pathology, Hematology, Immunopathology, Medical Microbiology, or Neuropathology.
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Pediatrics is the specialty of medical concerned with the physical, emotional, and social health of children from birth to young adulthood. Pediatric care encompasses a broad spectrum of health services ranging from preventive health care to the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic diseases. Pediatrics is a discipline that deals with biological, social, and environmental influences on developing child and with the impact of disease and dysfunction on development. Children differ from adults anatomically, physiologically, immunologically, psychologically, developmentally, and metabolically. A pediatrician is able to define accurately the child's health status, as well as being able to serve as a consultant and to make use of other specialists as consultants. Because children's welfare if heavily dependent on the home and family, the pediatrician supports efforts to create a nurturing environment. Such support includes education about healthful living anticipatory guidance for both patients and parents.
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Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine: A specialist in neonatal-perinatal medicine is the principal care provider for sick newborn infants. He/she brings extensive experience derived from an intensively focused clinical interest in the problems of newborns. This clinical expertise is used for direct patient care and for consulting with obstetrical colleagues to plan the care of mothers who have high-risk pregnancies. The extensive and focused clinical experience with sick newborns prepares the specialist as a consultant to general pediatricians as they routinely care for most newborns.
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This is also referred to as Rehabilitation Medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with diagnosing and treating patients with impairments and/or disabilities which involve musculoskeletal, neurologic, or cardiovascular systems. The primary focus is on maximal restoration of physical, psychological, and vocational function and alleviation of pain. For diagnosis and evaluation, a physiatrist may include the techniques of electromyography and electrodiagnosis as supplements to the standard history, physical, x-ray, and laboratory examinations. In addition to traditional treatment modes, the specialist in physical medicine and rehabilitation may use therapeutic exercises, prosthetics, orthotics, and mechanical and electrical devices.
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This is a subspecialty of surgery which deals with the repair, replacement, and reconstruction of defects which are externally visible. They perform both reconstructive surgery which may be needed after an accident and they perform aesthetic (cosmetic) surgery on the face, breast, and body. They have special advanced skills in cosmetic skin surgery and perform such procedures as breast augmentation, changing facial aesthetic deformities and suction lipectomy of unwanted fat. Plastic surgeons may be trained in special microsurgery techniques for reconstruction after trauma or injury, such as to the hand or other parts of the body. Plastic surgeons often treat burn patients and do skin grafts.
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Preventive Medicine focuses on defined populations in order to maintain health. The distinctive components of Preventive Medicine include: Biostatistics Epidemiology Health Services Administration Environmental and occupational influences on health Social and behavioral influences on health. Measures which prevent the occurrence, progression, and disabling effects of disease of injury.
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These specialists deal with mental, emotion and/or behavioral disorders. They also enhance the adaptation of individuals who are coping with stress, crisis, and other problems of living. A psychiatrist may subspecialize in child psychiatry. Psychiatrists, on occasion, hospitalize patients for more intensive care observation or therapy. This type of attention is usually provided in a mental health care hospital or facility with staff especially trained to handle, evaluate, and support patients with these needs. Psychiatrists are physicians who may utilize drug therapy, counseling, psychoanalysis, and may work closely with other physicians in ruling out other biological causes of disease. Sometimes a psychiatrist may refer patients to psychologists and social workers for additional support. Outpatient and office management is an important part of the psychiatrist's service.
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Radiation oncology is that branch of radiology which deals with application of radiant energy (x-rays) in the treatment of malignant tumors.
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These are specialists of medicine who are highly trained to read and interpret X-rays of the body. These physicians are referred patients either as outpatients or in the hospital to help in the medical or surgical evaluation of patients. They prepare reports to the referring physic to help them diagnosis and treatment plan. Additional techniques of evaluation include ultrasound, CAT or MRI-scans. In addition, special invasive procedures may be performed in which dyes may be injected into arteries or veins to allow better visualization of body structures. The radiologist also provides interventional care and may catheterize arteries, perform angioplasty to expand and dilate the vessel lumens to improve blood flow. Some radiologists are especially trained to place thing needles into abnormalities detected by the X-ray and take very small samples for diagnostic purposes.
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A general surgeon manages surgical conditions affecting almost any area of the body. General surgeons often evaluate patients to determine whether surgery is needed or not. Patients with acute abdominal pain may be examined by a surgeon to determine if it is a surgical or non-surgical problem. Some common operations performed by general surgeons are cholecystectomy (gallbladder removal), appendectomy for appendicitis, operations to biopsy tissues for diagnostic purposes as in the breast, colon, liver, pancreas, and removal or repair of damaged or diseased tissues and organs. Some operations performed by general surgeons repair injured tissues without removing tissues. Colorectal Surgery: A Colon and rectal surgeon is an expert in the surgical treatment of colon and rectal disease diseases. In addition to finishing a general surgery residency, a colorectal surgeon has undergone an additional year of advanced training to specialize in treating benign disorders and malignant diseases of the colon and rectum and in performing colonoscopies. They treat benign disorders such as hemorrrhoids, fissures, abscesses, anal incontince constipation and inflammatory bowel diseases. They also utilize the latest technologies and a multidisciplinary approach to evaluate and treat malignant diseases such as colon cancer, rectal cancer, and anal cancer. General/Vascular Surgery: A surgeon with special qualifications in the management of surgical disorders of the blood vessels, excluding those of the heart, lungs, or brain. Examples of operation performed by general vascular surgeons include grafting of vessels that are occluded by blood clot and atherosclerosis that may occur in the carotid vessels, aorta, or leg vein arteries.
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Thoracic Surgery encompasses the operative and critical care of patients with pathologic conditions within the chest. Cardiovascular surgery is included in this area and is the surgical care of carotid and coronary artery disease, heart valves, and birth anomalies of the heart. They may also treat surgically tumors of the chest, including the lung, esophagus, and chest wall. The management of the airway and injuries of the chest is within the scope of this specialty.
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A specialist in Urology is a physician who has fulfilled the requirements of, and is certified by, The American Board of Urology. He is competent to manage benign and malignant medical and surgical disorders of the adrenal gland and of the genital and urinary systems. Urologists have comprehensive knowledge of, and skills in endoscopic, percutaneous, and open surgery of congenital and acquired conditions of the reproductive urinary systems and their related structures. The urologist may do a cystoscopy to evaluate the bladder and drainage system from the kidneys. Examination of the prostate and rectal and various biopsy techniques so evaluate tumors of the prostate are also performed by the urologist. The urologist evaluates, diagnosis, and treats in both males and females. Procedures to treat a variety of conditions ranging from urinary incontinence, inability to urinate, infections of the urinary tract, as well as tumors, are some of the areas covered by urology.
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